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CCIE Routing and Switching Written Exam v5.1

QUESTION 571

What is the maximum number of secondary IP addresses that can be configured on a router interface?

 

A.

1

B.

2

C.

4

D.

1024

E.

65535

F.

no limit to the number of addresses

 

Correct Answer: F

Explanation:

From “IP Routing Frequently Asked Questions”

 

Q. What are the maximum number of secondary IP addesses that can be configured on a router interface?

A. There are no limits on configuring secondary IP addresses on a router interface.

 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/border-gateway-protocol-bgp/28745-44.html#q21

 

 

QUESTION 572

Refer to the exhibit. Which option is the result of this configuration?

 

clip_image001

 

A.

All SNMP traffic coming into the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.

B.

All SNMP traffic generated from the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.

C.

All SMTP traffic generated from the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.

D.

All POP3 traffic coming into the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.

E.

All SMTP traffic coming into the router is redirected to interface GigabitEthernet1/0.

 

Correct Answer: C

Explanation:

This is an example of policy based routing, where traffic sourced from this router that matches the access list (all traffic with port 25 which is SMTP) will be forced out the Gig 0/1 interface.

 

 

QUESTION 573

Which additional feature must be enabled on a switch to allow PIM snooping to function correctly?

 

A.

IGMP snooping

B.

port security

C.

storm control

D.

dynamic ARP inspection

 

Correct Answer: A

 

 

QUESTION 574

Which two statements about SNMP traps are true? (Choose two.)

 

A
.

They are sent by an agent after a specified event.

B.

They are sent when solicited after a specified event.

C.

They are equivalent to a community string.

D.

They provide solicited data to the manager.

E.

They are sent by a management station to an agent.

F.

Vendor-specific traps can be configured.

 

Correct Answer: AF

Explanation:

The SNMP agent contains MIB variables whose values the SNMP manager can request or change. A manager can get a value from an agent or store a value into the agent. The agent gathers data from the MIB, the repository for
information about device parameters and network data. The agent can also respond to a manager’s requests to get or set data.

An agent can send unsolicited traps to the manager. Traps are messages alerting the SNMP manager to a condition on the network. Traps can mean improper user authentication, restarts, link status (up or down), MAC address tracking, closing of a TCP connection, loss of connection to a neighbor, or other significant events.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst2960/software/release/12-2_55_se/configuration/guide/scg_2960/swsnmp.html

 

 

QUESTION 575

Which three statements about the route preference of IS-IS are true? (Choose three.)

 

A.

An L1 path is preferred over an L2 path.

B.

An L2 path is preferred over an L1 path.

C.

Within each level, a path that supports optional metrics is preferred over a path that supports only the default metric.

D.

Within each level of metric support, the path with the lowest metric is preferred.

E.

The Cisco IS-IS implementation usually performs equal cost path load balancing on up to eight paths.

F.

Both L1 and L2 routes will be installed in the routing table at the same time.

 

Correct Answer: ACD

Explanation:

Given multiple possible routes to a particular destination, an L1 path is preferred over an L2 path. Within each level, a path that supports the optional metrics is preferred over a path that supports only the default metric. (Again, Cisco supports only the default metric, so the second order of preference is not relevant to Cisco routers.) Within each level of metric support, the path with the lowest metric is preferred. If multiple equal-cost, equal-level paths are found by the Decision process, they are all entered into the route table. The Cisco IS-IS implementation usually performs equal-cost load balancing on up to six paths.

Reference: http://www.realccielab.org/operation-of-integrated-is-is.html

 

 

QUESTION 576

Which two statements about logging are true? (Choose two.)

 

A.

Log messages are sent to the console port by default.

B.

Log messages are displayed in a Telnet session by default.

C.

Interface status changes are logged at the Notification level.

D.

Interface status changes are logged at the Informational level.

E.

System restart messages are logged at the Critical level.

F.

Reload requests are logged at the Notification level.

 

Correct Answer: AC

Explanation:

By default, switches send the output from system messages and debug privileged EXEC commands to a logging process. The logging process controls the distribution of logging messages to various destinations, such as the logging buffer, terminal lines, or a UNIX syslog server, depending on your configuration. The process also sends messages to the console.

 

Table 29-3 Message Logging Level Keywor
ds

Level Keyword

Level

Description

Syslog Definition

emergencies

0

System unstable

LOG_EMERG

alerts

1

Immediate action needed

LOG_ALERT

critical

2

Critical conditions

LOG_CRIT

errors

3

Error conditions

LOG_ERR

warnings

4

Warning conditions

LOG_WARNING

notifications< /font>

5

Normal but significant condition

LOG_NOTICE

informational

6

Informational messages only

LOG_INFO

debugging

7

Debugging messages

LOG_DEBUG

 

The software generates four other categories of messages:

 

clip_image003Error messages about software or hardware malfunctions, displayed at levels warnings through emergencies. These types of messages mean that the functionality of the switch is affected. For information on how to recover from these malfunctions, see the system message guide for this release.

clip_image003[1]Output from the debug commands, displayed at the debugging level. Debug commands are typically used only by the Technical Assistance Center.

clip_image003[2]Interface up or down transitions and system restart messages, displayed at the notifications level. This message is only for information; switch functionality is not affected .

clip_image003[3]Reload requests and low-process stack messages, displayed at the informational level. This message is only for information; switch functionality is not affected.

 

References:

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst2950/software/release/12-1_9_ea1/configuration/guide/scg/swlog.html

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst2960/software/release/12-2_55_se/configuration/guide/scg_2960/swlog.html

 

 

QUESTION 577

Which timer expiration can lead to an EIGRP route becoming stuck in active?

 

A.

hello

B.

active

C.

query

D.

hold

 

Correct Answer: B

Explanation:

As noted above, when a route goes into the active state, the router queries its neighbors to find a path to the pertinent network. At this point, the router starts a three minute active timer by which time it must receive replies from all queried neighbors. If a neighbor has feasible successors for the route, it will recalculate its own local distance to the network and report this back. However, if a neighbor does not have a feasible successor, it also goes into active state. In some cases, multiple routers along multiple query paths will go into active state as routers continue to query for the desired route. In most cases, this process will yield responses from all queried routers and the sought after route will transition back into the passive state within the three minute SIA query timer. In the case that none of the queried routers can provide a feasible successor, the route is cleared.

In some cases, a response is not received between two neighbor routers because of link failures, congestion or some other adverse condition in either the network or on the queried router, and the three minute active timer expires on the router originating the query. When this happens, the querying router that did not receive a response logs a “DUAL-3-SIA” or “stuck-in-active” error for the route and then drops and restarts its adjacency with the non-responding router.

Reference: http://www.packetdesign.com/resources/technical-briefs/diagnosing-eigrp-stuck-active

 

 

QUESTION 578

Which TCP feature allows a client to request a specific packet that was lost?

 

A.

flow control

B.

sliding window

C.

fast recovery

D.

selective acknowledgment

 

Correct Answer: D

Explanation:

The TCP Selective Acknowledgment feature improves performance if multiple packets are lost from one TCP window of data.

Prior to this feature, because of limited information available from cumulative acknowledgments, a TCP sender could learn about only one lost packet per-round-trip time. An aggressive sender could choose to resend packets early, but such re-sent segments might have already been successfully received.

The TCP selective acknowledgment mechanism helps improve performance. The receiving TCP host returns selective acknowledgment packets to the sender, informing the sender of data that has been received. In other words, the receiver can acknowledge packets received out of order.

The sender can then resend only missing data segments (instead of everything since the first missing packet).

Prior to selective acknowledgment, if TCP lost packets 4 and 7 out of an 8-packet window, TCP would receive acknowledgment of only packets 1, 2, and 3. Packets 4 through 8 would need to be re-sent. With selective acknowledgment, TCP receives acknowledgment of packets 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8. Only packets 4 and 7 must be re-sent.

TCP selective acknowledgment is used only when multiple packets are dropped within one TCP window. There is no performance impact when the feature is enabled but not used. Use the ip tcp

selective-ack command in global configuration mode to enable TCP selective acknowledgment.

Refer to RFC 2018 for more details about TCP selective acknowledgment.

 

 

QUESTION 579

Which EIGRP packet types are sent as unicast packets?

 

A.

hello, update, query

B.

query, SIA query, reply

C.

SIA query, reply, ACK

D.

query, SIA query, SIA reply

 

Correct Answer: C

 

 

 

QUESTION 580

Which two metrics are measured with active probes when PfR voice traffic optimization is in use? (Choose two.)

 

A.

MOS

B.

cost

C.

jitter

D.

bandwidth

 

Correct Answer: AC

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