CompTIA Academic/E2C Security Certification Exam Voucher Only
Question No: 521 – (Topic 3)
Pete, the security administrator, has been notified by the IDS that the company website is under attack. Analysis of the web logs show the following string, indicating a user is trying to post a comment on the public bulletin board.
INSERT INTO message `lt;scriptgt;source=http://evilsitelt;/scriptgt; This is an example of which of the following?
XML injection attack
Buffer overflow attack
SQL injection attack
Answer: A Explanation:
The lt;scriptgt; lt;/scriptgt; tags indicate that script is being inserted.
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in Web applications. XSS enables attackers to inject client-side script into Web pages viewed by other users.
Cross-site scripting uses known vulnerabilities in web-based applications, their servers, or plug-in systems on which they rely. Exploiting one of these, attackers fold malicious content into the content being delivered from the compromised site. When the resulting combined content arrives at the client-side web browser, it has all been delivered from the trusted source, and thus operates under the permissions granted to that system. By finding ways of injecting malicious scripts into web pages, an attacker can gain elevated access- privileges to sensitive page content, session cookies, and a variety of other information maintained by the browser on behalf of the user.
Question No: 522 – (Topic 3)
A vulnerability assessment indicates that a router can be accessed from default port 80 and default port 22. Which of the following should be executed on the router to prevent access via these ports? (Select TWO).
FTP service should be disabled
HTTPS service should be disabled
SSH service should be disabled
HTTP service should disabled
Telnet service should be disabled
Answer: C,D Explanation:
Port 80 is used by HTTP. Port 22 is used by SSH. By disabling the HTTP and Telnet services, you will prevent access to the router on ports 80 and 22.
Question No: 523 – (Topic 3)
A system administrator has noticed vulnerability on a high impact production server. A recent update was made available by the vendor that addresses the vulnerability but requires a reboot of the system afterwards. Which of the following steps should the system administrator implement to address the vulnerability?
Test the update in a lab environment, schedule downtime to install the patch, install the patch and reboot the server and monitor for any changes
Test the update in a lab environment, backup the server, schedule downtime to install the patch, install the patch, and monitor for any changes
Test the update in a lab environment, backup the server, schedule downtime to install the patch, install the update, reboot the server, and monitor for any changes
Backup the server, schedule downtime to install the patch, installs the patch and monitor for any changes
Answer: C Explanation:
We have an update to apply to fix the vulnerability. The update should be tested first in a lab environment, not on the production server to ensure it doesn’t cause any other problems with the server. After testing the update, we should backup the server to enable us to roll back any changes in the event of any unforeseen problems with the update. The question states that the server will require a reboot. This will result in downtime so you should schedule the downtime before installing the patch. After installing the update, you should monitor the server to ensure it is functioning correctly.
Question No: 524 – (Topic 3)
Pete, a security analyst, has been tasked with explaining the different types of malware to his colleagues. The two malware types that the group seems to be most interested in are botnets and viruses. Which of the following explains the difference between these two types of malware?
Viruses are a subset of botnets which are used as part of SYN attacks.
Botnets are a subset of malware which are used as part of DDoS attacks.
Viruses are a class of malware which create hidden openings within an OS.
Botnets are used within DR to ensure network uptime and viruses are not.
Answer: B Explanation:
A botnet is a collection of Internet-connected programs communicating with other similar programs in order to perform tasks. This can be as mundane as keeping control of an Internet Relay Chat (IRC) channel, or it could be used to send spam email or participate in distributed denial-of-service attacks. The word botnet is a combination of the words robot and network. The term is usually used with a negative or malicious connotation.
Computers can be co-opted into a botnet when they execute malicious software. This can be accomplished by luring users into making a drive-by download, exploiting web browser vulnerabilities, or by tricking the user into running a Trojan horse program, which may come from an email attachment. This malware will typically install modules that allow the computer to be commanded and controlled by the botnet#39;s operator. Many computer users are unaware that their computer is infected with bots. Depending on how it is written, a Trojan may then delete itself, or may remain present to update and maintain the modules.
Question No: 525 – (Topic 3)
An administrator is concerned that a company’s web server has not been patched. Which of the following would be the BEST assessment for the administrator to perform?
Answer: A Explanation:
A vulnerability scan is the process of scanning the network and/or I.T. infrastructure for threats and vulnerabilities. Vulnerabilities include computer systems that do not have the latest security patches installed.
The threats and vulnerabilities are then evaluated in a risk assessment and the necessary actions taken to resolve and vulnerabilities.
A vulnerability scan is the automated process of proactively identifying security vulnerabilities of computing systems in a network in order to determine if and where a system can be exploited and/or threatened. While public servers are important for communication and data transfer over the Internet, they open the door to potential security breaches by threat agents, such as malicious hackers.
Vulnerability scanning employs software that seeks out security flaws based on a database of known flaws, testing systems for the occurrence of these flaws and generating a report of the findings that an individual or an enterprise can use to tighten the network#39;s security.
Vulnerability scanning typically refers to the scanning of systems that are connected to the Internet but can also refer to system audits on internal networks that are not connected to the Internet in order to assess the threat of rogue software or malicious employees in an enterprise.
Question No: 526 – (Topic 3)
Jane, an individual, has recently been calling various financial offices pretending to be another person to gain financial information. Which of the following attacks is being described?
Answer: D Explanation:
Vishing (voice or VoIP phishing) is an electronic fraud tactic in which individuals are tricked into revealing critical financial or personal information to unauthorized entities. Vishing works like phishing but does not always occur over the Internet and is carried out using voice technology. A vishing attack can be conducted by voice email, VoIP (voice over IP), or landline or cellular telephone.
The potential victim receives a message, often generated by speech synthesis, indicating that suspicious activity has taken place in a credit card account, bank account, mortgage account or other financial service in their name. The victim is told to call a specific telephone number and provide information to quot;verify identityquot; or to quot;ensure that fraud does not occur.quot; If the attack is carried out by telephone, caller ID spoofing can cause the victim#39;s set to indicate a legitimate source, such as a bank or a government agency.
Vishing is difficult for authorities to trace, particularly when conducted using VoIP. Furthermore, like many legitimate customer services, vishing scams are often outsourced to other countries, which may render sovereign law enforcement powerless.
Consumers can protect themselves by suspecting any unsolicited message that suggests they are targets of illegal activity, no matter what the medium or apparent source. Rather than calling a number given in any unsolicited message, a consumer should directly call the institution named, using a number that is known to be valid, to verify all recent activity and
to ensure that the account information has not been tampered with.
Question No: 527 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following tools would a security administrator use in order to identify all running services throughout an organization?
Answer: C Explanation:
Different services use different ports. When a service is enabled on a computer, a network port is opened for that service. For example, enabling the HTTP service on a web server will open port 80 on the server. By determining which ports are open on a remote server, we can determine which services are running on that server.
A port scanner is a software application designed to probe a server or host for open ports. This is often used by administrators to verify security policies of their networks and by attackers to identify running services on a host with the view to compromise it.
A port scan or portscan can be defined as a process that sends client requests to a range of server port addresses on a host, with the goal of finding an active port. While not a nefarious process in and of itself, it is one used by hackers to probe target machine services with the aim of exploiting a known vulnerability of that service. However the majority of uses of a port scan are not attacks and are simple probes to determine services available on a remote machine.
Question No: 528 – (Topic 3)
Which device monitors network traffic in a passive manner?
Answer: A Explanation:
A sniffer is another name for a protocol analyzer. A protocol analyzer performs its function in a passive manner. In other words, computers on the network do not know that their data packets have been captured.
A Protocol Analyzer is a hardware device or more commonly a software program used to capture network data communications sent between devices on a network. Capturing packets sent from a computer system is known as packet sniffing.
Well known software protocol analyzers include Message Analyzer (formerly Network Monitor) from Microsoft and Wireshark (formerly Ethereal).
A sniffer (packet sniffer) is a tool that intercepts data flowing in a network. If computers are connected to a local area network that is not filtered or switched, the traffic can be broadcast to all computers contained in the same segment. This doesn’t generally occur, since computers are generally told to ignore all the comings and goings of traffic from other computers. However, in the case of a sniffer, all traffic is shared when the sniffer software commands the Network Interface Card (NIC) to stop ignoring the traffic. The NIC is put into promiscuous mode, and it reads communications between computers within a particular segment. This allows the sniffer to seize everything that is flowing in the network, which can lead to the unauthorized access of sensitive data. A packet sniffer can take the form of either a hardware or software solution. A sniffer is also known as a packet analyzer.
Question No: 529 – (Topic 3)
A security technician is attempting to improve the overall security posture of an internal mail server. Which of the following actions would BEST accomplish this goal?
Monitoring event logs daily
Disabling unnecessary services
Deploying a content filter on the network
Deploy an IDS on the network
Answer: B Explanation:
One of the most basic practices for reducing the attack surface of a specific host is to disable unnecessary services. Services running on a host, especially network services provide an avenue through which the system can be attacked. If a service is not being used, disable it.
Question No: 530 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following is described as an attack against an application using a malicious file?
Client side attack
Answer: A Explanation:
In this question, a malicious file is used to attack an application. If the application is running on a client computer, this would be a client side attack. Attacking a service or application on a server would be a server side attack.
Client-side attacks target vulnerabilities in client applications interacting with a malicious data. The difference is the client is the one initiating the bad connection.
Client-side attacks are becoming more popular. This is because server side attacks are not as easy as they once were according to apache.org.
Attackers are finding success going after weaknesses in desktop applications such as browsers, media players, common office applications and e-mail clients.
To defend against client-side attacks keep-up the most current application patch levels, keep antivirus software updated and keep authorized software to a minimum.
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